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Why is sub-Saharan Africa the most vulnerable regions to climate change?

Why is sub-Saharan Africa the most vulnerable regions to climate change?

Abstract The repercussions of climate change will be felt in various ways throughout both natural and human systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Particularly vulnerable to these climatic changes are the rainfed agricultural systems on which the livelihoods of a large proportion of the region’s population currently depend.

What country in Africa is most vulnerable to climate change?

Central Africa, for the most part, is landlocked and is geographically threatened by climate change. Due to its high climate variability and rainfed agriculture, Central Africa is expected to experience longer and more frequent heatwaves as well as an increase in wet extremes.

Where the risk of desertification is in Africa?

Practically every country of Africa is prone to desertification, but the Sahelian countries at the southern fringe of the Sahara are particularly vulnerable. Only about 19% of Niger is non-desert and of this 17% belongs to high and very high vulnerability classes.

Where is desertification most likely to occur?

More specifically, desertification plays its largest role in the grasslands of East Africa, the Kalahari Desert and the Sahara Desert. These regions span over 65 percent of the land. In Ethiopia, 80 percent of the land is at risk of desertification.

What are 3 causes of desertification?

Overgrazing is the major cause of desertification worldwide. Other factors that cause desertification include urbanization, climate change, overuse of groundwater, deforestation, natural disasters, and tillage practices in agriculture that make soils more vulnerable to wind.

What countries are at risk of desertification?

A recently published JRC study identified the following geographic regions as prone to desertification: north-eastern Brazil, south-western Argentina, the southern Sahel, Zambia and Zimbabwe, Sub-Himalayan India, and north-eastern China.

How can desertification be prevented?

Preventive actions include:

  1. Integrating land and water management to protect soils from erosion, salinization, and other forms of degradation.
  2. Protecting the vegetative cover, which can be a major instrument for soil conservation against wind and water erosion.

How does desertification affect China?

China is severely affected by desertification, with more than a quarter of its territory covered in desert. As of 2010, 57% of its territory, or 2.97 million hectares, had been affected by desertification. The encroaching deserts threaten to destroy farmland and bury villages, forcing people to abandon their homes.

What is the main cause of desertification?

‘Climatic variations’ and ‘Human activities’ can be regarded as the two main causes of desertification. removal of the natural vegetation cover(by taking too much fuel wood), agricultural activities in the vulnerable ecosystems of arid and semi-arid areas, which are thus strained beyond their capacity.

What are the main causes of drought?

A lack of water in stores such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and aquifers (water stored underground naturally) can lead to drought. Areas that rely on rainfall and surface water are more likely to experience drought. Surface water quickly evaporates in warm, dry conditions leading to an increased risk of drought.

What human activities cause desertification?

Human activities that contribute to desertification include the expansion and intensive use of agricultural lands, poor irrigation practices, deforestation, and overgrazing. These unsustainable land uses place enormous pressure on the land by altering its soil chemistry and hydrology.

What is the impact of desertification?

Desertification has caused major environmental and socioeconomic problems in many arid and semiarid areas of the world1. It causes soil degradation and severely reduces potential land productivity2–4, which causes degradation of the ecosystem and its associated ecosystem services.

What are the social impacts of desertification?

Desertification-induced migration and urbanization may worsen foreign living conditions by overcrowd- ing, unemployment, environmental pollution and overstressing of natural and infrastructural resources, and by social tension, conflicts and vices such as crime and prostitution in the destination centres.

What are the impacts of desertification in the Sahel?

The effects of desertification In 2014 the UN stated that 20million people in the Sahel region of Africa faced hunger and required $2 billion in food aid due to desertification. The loss of vegetation can cause severe soil erosion. The nutrients in the soil get washed or leached away leaving soil infertile.

How does desertification impact the economy?

Desertification mostly affects rural households who are forced to depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. More so, drought and desertification lead to the migration of people to urban or other areas to engage in economic activities such as farming, grazing and fishing.

What is the impact of drought and desertification on the economy?

The drought has led to job losses in the province’s agriculture sector. The 2017 third quarterly labour force survey showed that approximately 25,000 jobs were lost from the agricultural sector nationally. More than 20 000 of these were lost in the Western Cape province. Many were associated with the drought.

What are the impact of drought and desertification?

Macroeconomic impacts

Primary impacts Secondary impacts
More dust and sandstorms Increased soil erosion; increased air pollution
Decreased soil productivity Desertification and soil degradation (topsoil erosion)
Decreased water resources Lack of water for feeding and drinking
Reduced water quality More waterborne diseases

What is the impact of drought on people?

Drought can also affect people’s health and safety. Examples of drought impacts on society include anxiety or depression about economic losses, conflicts when there is not enough water, reduced incomes, fewer recreational activities, higher incidents of heat stroke, and even loss of human life.

What are the causes and effects of droughts?

The soil starts drying out and plants die. When this pattern continues for several weeks, months or years, the flow of streams and rivers decreases and water levels in lakes, reservoirs and wells fall. Eventually, the unusual dry weather causes water supply issues, and the dry period becomes a drought.

How can the impact of drought be reduced?

Mulching – Covering bare soil with wood chips, straw or other plants material can help to hold the soil in place. Conservation Crop Rotation – Switching to crops that require less water can allow a field to remain productive and provide erosion protection. Minimize the effects of drought on your irrigated cropland.

What are the causes and effects of droughts in Southern Africa?

Periods of drought effect Southern Africa’s various biomes and wildlife, while reduced water levels in rivers can cause hydroelectric dams to operate at reduced capacity. El Niño events in Southern Africa also increase the likelihood of African armyworm outbreaks, further decreasing the region’s agricultural output.

What are the long term effects of drought?

If drought becomes prolonged, the branches of woody plants will begin to die back, and plants can die entirely if their ability to absorb water from the environment is damaged (UMass Amherst). In long-term drought, native plants may die back, allowing for the intrusion of invasive plant species.

What are the effects of drought in Botswana?

In semi-arid Botswana, the farmers are reeling after the worst drought in a decade wiped out entire harvests and left the land littered with dead livestock. Two thirds of the crops planted last season failed, while Ngamiland, a rich beef producing region, has recorded nearly 40,000 cattle deaths.

What strategies can government do to prevent drought?

Federal agencies, using their existing authorities, have been providing modest amounts of help, including funding water conservation efforts, livestock disaster assistance, and supporting rural communities facing job losses from crop fallowing and drinking-water shortages.

What happens to plants when there is a drought?

Drought triggers a wide variety of plant responses [12]. Plant growth is altered, with changes in the architecture of individuals, which are translated into lower height, reduced leaf size, a smaller number of leaves, less fruit production and changes in the reproductive phase.

How do you keep plants alive in a drought?

How To Keep Your Garden Alive During A Drought

  1. Water Early.
  2. Be Efficient.
  3. Avoid Watering Foliage.
  4. Install Drip Irrigation & A Timer Tap.
  5. Add A Health Tonic For Plants.
  6. Keep Water In The Soil.
  7. Lay Mulch.
  8. Choose Drought-Resistant Plants.

Can we stop droughts?

Being mindful of the amount of water you use each day can be a powerful way to prevent droughts. Turning off the faucet while you brush your teeth, watering your garden early in the morning so less water evaporates, and installing low-flow plumbing fixtures all are good ways to prevent wasted water.

Which hormone prevents water loss from plants?

plant hormone ABA

Which hormone is responsible for closing of stomata?

abscisic acid

What is it called when plants respond to gravity?

Gravitropism (also known as geotropism) is a coordinated process of differential growth by a plant in response to gravity pulling on it.